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2006 Research Projects
     
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Below is a list of titles of research projects conducted by MARC/AIM scholars in 2006. Click on each title to see an abstract of that project and the names and locations of the scholars and the faculty, staff and graduate students who mentored them. If you scroll down past the list of titles, the abstracts are arranged in alphabetical order of the MARC/AIM participants.

Project Titles: 2006

Search for Bs-->J/psi eta with the CDF-II Detector at Fermilab

Investigation of Premature Distress Around Joints in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Pavements

Investigation of the Effects of Soccer Heading on Head, Neck, and Spine Injuries

Synthetic Studies on the C3-Symmetry Homochiral Ligand

Design and Testing of a Laser Desorption Source for Spectroscopy of Biomolecules

Tracking the distribution of E. coli in Romaine lettuce grown from contaminated seeds

Analysis of Growth Potential of Salmonella poona in the Epidermal Layer of Tomato

Use of Glutathione S-transferases from maize, Triticum and Arabidopsis to modify herbicide tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants

The use of innovative Self-Referencing Oxygen Optrode (SRO) technology to scan developmental metabolism in maize root tips

Expression and Mutant analysis of Auxin and Wounding responsive Arabidopsis Aminopeptidase P (AtAPP1)

Role of Arabidopsis Aminopeptidase P (AtAPP1) in Auxin and wounding Responses

Multi-element laser ablation analysis of yeast with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

Nanoparticle synthesis via Microemulsion for In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) Applications

Dietary influence on behavioral responses to stressors in rats

Synthesis of motor pRNA for in vitro assembly of infectious virion of bacteriophage f29

Relationship between myosin heavy chain gene expression and protein abundance in porcine muscle

Interacting Partners for Putative Arabidopsis thaliana Cytochrome P450 Reductase III

Cloning of Centromeric-Specific Histones (CENH3s) in Soybean (Glycine max.)

The Interaction of Androgen and 1, 25(OH)2 vitamin D3 in the Prostate Epithelial Cells

Maintenance Management Strategies to Increase Manufacturing Competitiveness

The Role of Cdk5 in Alzheimer's Disease

The Characteristics of Self-Employment in Indiana

Lck Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

CO2 Sensing for Indoor Air Quality Detection Using Sensor Networks

Writing as a component of early literacy competence: Results from an intervention in Head Start classrooms

Waveform-Engineered Convection-Enhanced Drug Delivery with Improved Efficacy

The Influence of Sanitation, Age, and Distance on Red Flour Beetle Movement in Reaction to Pheromone Traps

Ethnic Fluidity in colonial New Mexico

Laser Capture Microdissection and Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Electrophoresis

The Effects of Urbanization on Regional Climate: Chicago, IL and Northern Indiana

Metabolite Profiling for Early Disease Detection

Pathogenicity analysis of Phytophthora citricola on different hosts

Effects of Human Disturbance on Great Blue Heron Nesting Success

The Importance of Mist1 to Mammary Epithelial Development and its Role in Breast Cancer

Identification and Analysis of Adaptive Mutations in Persistently Replicating Flavivirus Replicon RNA

Trends Within The Fresh Produce Supply Chain

Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) Characterization of Archaeal Community in the Human Intestine

Effects of Alcohol Drinking During Adolescence on Adult Alcohol Drinking Behavior in a Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism

Elements of Socialization to Race Related Police Contact

Synthesis of Polyrotaxane Materials for DNA Delivery


Project Abstracts: 2006

Search for Bs-->J/psi eta with the CDF-II Detector at Fermilab

Edwin Antillon, University of Colorado at Boulder
Professor Matthew Jones, Department of Physics

The Fermilab Tevatron is the world's highest energy collider, accelerating proton and anti-protons up to 1 TeV (10^12 eV). Currently, this is the only facility that produces large numbers of Bs mesons (bound states of bottom quarks and strange anti-quarks). The Bs mesons are linear combination of quantum mechanical states that contain a bottom quark or a bottom anti-quark. These evolve with time to arrangements that are either symmetric or anti-symmetric under the combined operations of (C) charge-conjugation and (P) mirror-reflection operations. For many years, it has been recognized that states with CP-even and CP-odd values could decay at different rates, but so far, no experiments have been able to unambiguously measure this expected difference. This research studies the reconstruction of Bs mesons that decay to J/psi eta, which is a pure CP-even final state, using data collected with the CDF-II detector. Calibration of the Central EM calorimeter for low energy photons is essential to reconstruct the decay eta->gamma gamma, thereby providing a way to measuring the lifetime of Bs -> J/psi eta final state. A comparison between the lifetimes of a pure CP-even state versus mixture of CP-even and odd final states would provide an unambiguous determination of the lifetimes of both CP-eigenstates of the Bs meson.

Edwin Antillon




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Investigation of Premature Distress Around Joints in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Pavements
Maria del Mar Arribas, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez
Professor Jan Olek, Department of Civil Engineering

Some of the Indiana concrete pavements that have been constructed within the last 10 years have shown signs of premature deterioration, especially in the areas adjacent to the longitudinal joints. This deterioration typically manifests itself as cracking and spalling of concrete combined with the loss of joint filler. This process creates a cavity in the joint area that traps water and, as a consequence, accelerates further deterioration of concrete during the freezing and thawing cycles. The objective of the study was to examine in details the cause of this premature deterioration and to devise a successful repair plan.

The investigation started with detailed inventory of selected affected pavements in order to identify and classify the existing types of distress. A total of four different sites have been identified for the collection of the cores: NB lines of I-65 near downtown Indianapolis , SR 933 near South Bend , Intersection of 86 th Street and Georgetown in Indianapolis and a ramp from SR-67 to I-465, also in Indianapolis . Several 6-in. diameter cores have been collected form the above locations and brought to the laboratory to determine the type and extent of cracking and other mechanical and chemical changes.

The laboratory investigation will include ASTM C457 determination of air-void system parameters and the degree of “blocking” of the pores, measurement and quantification of cracking using microscopic observations and an image-analysis system, determination of uniformity of microstructure and stiffness using the resonant frequency method, and determination of the rate of water absorption. In addition, the resistance to freezing and thawing of the collected cores will be conducted by exposing them to water as well as to different types of salt solutions.

The results of this study will provide much needed insight into the nature and cause of the distress observed in the near-joint regions of the pavements. This knowledge will allow for development of better construction guidelines aimed to prevent and eliminate this type of distress in future pavement projects. It will also allow for development of fact-based, rational rehabilitation techniques to ensure longevity of the repairs.

Maria del Mar Arribas, Dr. Jan Olek , Mateusz Radlinski, Adam Rudy, Lukasz Kotwica Purdue University, Civil Engineering Department

Maria del Mar Arribas




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Investigation of the Effects of Soccer Heading on Head, Neck, and Spine Injuries
Amanda Bell, Bethune Cookman College
Professor Eric Nauman, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Soccer is considered the world's most popular sport with over 240 million players in more than 200 countries. It has been suggested that repetitive heading may cause cognitive deficits over time. The objective of this study is to use an inverse method to estimate impact forces between the ball and the players head. Typical cases of head impact were selected from video footage provided by the Purdue University Woman's Soccer Team and were analyzed through simulation on an instrumented model. The long range goal of this project is to extend our knowledge of head impacts to an investigation of the mechanisms leading to head, neck, and spinal injury from soccer play. Gaining insight into these events will assist in the development of countermeasures for preventing such injuries.

Amanda Bell




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Synthetic Studies on the C 3 -Symmetry Homochiral Ligand
Georgina Carballo, University of Texas at El Paso
Professor Philip Fuchs, Department of Chemistry

Recurring small, virulent outbreaks of Avian Flu have caused experts at the world Health Organization (WHO) to credit the distinct possibility of a pandemic in the near future. The current fatality total of the H5F1 strain is 132/230, small absolute numbers, but indicative of potential disaster, should it become communicable human-to-human. The drug Tamiflu TM , has become the agent of choice because it is orally active. It is suggested that these novel tridentate ligands will function as catalysts for the synthesis and chiral induction of Tamiflu TM . The preparation, characterization and testing of enantiopure C 3 -symmetric tridentate ligands i.e. 1,1,1-tris-[2-{(S)-4-isopropyl}oxazolinyl]ethane are studied. All starting materials were prepared. L-valinol, which was prepared from L-valine, was the main substrate for starting materials: mono-oxazolines and bisoxazolines. TLC was used to monitor the reactions and purification was performed using flash chromatography. Characterization of materials was assessed by proton NMR. Although the literature indicated higher yields, some methods for the preparation of starting materials yielded poorly. Therefore, better synthetic routes had to be explored, in order to obtain the desired compound in pure form.

Carballo, Georgina *; Park, Taesik § ; Fuchs, P. L. §
* University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968, § Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907
Gina Carballo




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Design and Testing of a Laser Desorption Source for Spectroscopy of Biomolecules
Paul Carey, Purdue University
Professor Timothy Zwier, Department of Chemistry

This research looks into the design of more efficient ways to perform laser spectroscopy on large biologically relevant molecules. An interesting method of using laser desorption by using localized heating has been found to have possible potential. Using Laser desorption along supersonic expansion we will be able to study these large biologically relevant molecules in the gas phase. For this AutoCAD was used to create different laser desorption sources, making sure they focused on three important aspects cost, maintenance and efficiency. The fundamental part of this research is its use in helping close the complexity gap in the understanding between small and large systems of biological relevant molecules. Future hopes include trying to find out more information about physical interactions of these molecules compare information from new experiments with those that have been previously done.

Co-Mentor: Jasper Clarkson, Senior Graduate Student

Paul Carey




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Tracking the distribution of E. coli in Romaine lettuce grown from contaminated seeds

Shannon Coleman, Alabama A&M University
Professor Bradley Reuhs, Department of Food Sciences

A number of human infections associated with E. coli O157:H7 has been reported in different parts of the US as a result of consumptions of raw vegetables and fruits. The rate of infection has, in fact, increased in the past two decades. One of the routes by which vegetables are contaminated is when they are grown from contaminated seeds. The survival and distribution of E. coli O157:H7 in vegetables during growth will eventually determine its ability to infect consumers. The objective of this project was to track the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 from seeds to the edible part of the growing plant and the bacterial growth and stability on the plant over time by employing the gfp and lux genes.

Seeds of Romaine lettuce were contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 cells and seeded in test tubes containing solidified Hoagland's nutrient solution and germinated in the dark at 25 o C. After germination, the plants were kept in a growth chamber at 25 o C and 52% humidity and periodically sampled for analysis. The gfp gene product was employed to quantify E. coli on the growing plant, as they fluoresce under UV light. The lux gene product was, on the other hand, used to visualize the distribution of E. coli O157:H7 on the vegetable. This system enables us to determine if the bacteria prefer a certain area of the plant to survive and multiply. The ability of E. coli O157:H7 to utilize Romaine lettuce extract as a carbon source was also investigated over a 24 hour period at different concentrations.

Mussie Habteselassie, Co-Mentor

Shannon Coleman




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Analysis of Growth Potential of Salmonella poona in the Epidermal Layer of Tomato
Jamie Kendrick, Alabama A&M University
Professor Bradley Reuhs, Department of Food Sciences

Very little is known about the growth of human pathogens in the epidermal layer of the tomato fruit, although it has been previously shown that the pathogens can grow in the pericarp. Therefore, extractions of the pericarp and epidermal layer of tomatoes was performed, using a phosphate buffer solublization method. NMR analysis of the preparations showed the presence of carbohydrate material in each, although the abundance was minimal in the epidermal preparation, and gas chromatography was used to measure the relative quantities of sugars that were present. The two preparations (i.e., carbon sources), from the epidermal and pericarp cells, were sterilized and equal amounts were used in bacterial growth experiments, in which the samples were present in growth media that was inoculated with Salmonella poona . The samples were then assayed for bacterial growth at room temperature. It was observed that the pathogen grew to significantly greater levels with the pericarp material versus the epidermal preparation. To simulate a potential natural occurrence in the environment, tomatoes were wounded and spot inoculated with S. poona and monitored with digital fluorescent imaging. From this experiment, it was shown that the epidermal layer of the tomato needs to be broken in order for the pathogens to grow on the tomato fruit. Thus, healthy, undamaged tomatoes are not likely to be a source of Salmonella contamination.

Andrew Curtis, Co-Mentor

Jamie Kendrick




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Use of Glutathione S-transferases from maize, Triticum and Arabidopsis to modify herbicide tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants
Hille Charmaine Corona
University of Texas Pan-American
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

Glutathione S -transferases (GSTs) are herbicide detoxifying enzymes found in plants. GSTs function by catalyzing the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to herbicides. We have utilized GSTs from three different species in our experiments– Arabidopsis AtGSTU19, Triticum thaliana TtGSTU1, and maize ZmGSTIV. The different GSTs have been transferred into Arabidopsis to evaluate the effectiveness of different GSTs in providing herbicide tolerance to Arabidopsis plants. Analysis of these transgenic plants has involved the following experiments: confirming the presence of the different GSTs in transgenic plants using Kanamcyin resistance as a selectable marker; isolating RNA from the transgenic plants and using this to examine the expression of the GST gene by RT-PCR; testing for herbicide resistance by spraying the transgenic plants with different herbicides; and measuring GST enzyme activity in extracts prepared for these plants. Transgenic plants expressing maize ZmGSTIV have been shown to be more tolerant to the herbicide alachlor than wild type.

Corona , Hille A ; Takahashi, Kana B ; Goldsbrough, Peter B . C
A University of Texas-Pan American
B Department of Advanced Bio Science, Ochanomizu University
C Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University
Hille Corona




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The use of innovative Self-Referencing Oxygen Optrode (SRO) technology to scan developmental metabolism in maize root tips
Steven French
University of Texas Pan-American
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

Because of the significance of O 2 in the environment, biology and medicine there have been considerable efforts in the development of measuring techniques for sensing this molecule. The non-invasive testing for O 2 flux in plant and animal tissues with SRO have shown to have major advantages over that of the current electrochemical sensors: 1) O 2 is not consumed by the sensor, thereby eliminating sensor stir sensitivity; 2) there is no reference electrode; and 3) the sensors are immune from external electromagnetic field interference. In this study O 2 flux measurements are made on developing 4-day old corn seedling roots grown in a basal nutrient medium (100µM  CaCl 2 ). Flux measurements are made at distinct positions along the root from the tip down the length of the root to the zone of maturation (approximately 1 cm). At each position, six sample measurements are taken over a 60 second period, and analyzed statistically. Using this technique, we have been able to map and characterize developmental patterns of metabolism in the developing corn root. The most significant patterns in O 2 flux occur within the first 1-2 mm, where the root cap, apical meristem, and zone of elongation are located. In the transition between the zone of elongation and the zone of maturation, a steady decline in O 2 flux occurs, down to a consistent level of flux. The SRO provides reliable and highly reproducible measurements of O 2 flux as indicated by the range of the values of relative standard deviation (3.78%-5.17%) calculated from the scan data.

Steven S. French, University of Texas-Pan American;
D. Marshall Porterfield, Purdue University
Steve French




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Expression and Mutant analysis of Auxin and Wounding responsive Arabidopsis Aminopeptidase P ( At APP1).
Sheenaley Legas
University of Texas Pan-American
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

Mutations in auxin and wounding responsive Arabidopsis Aminopeptidase P ( At APP1) caused auxin related phenotypes. These mutants had aberrant dark and blue light responses. AtAPP1 interacts with IAA7 and IAA1 central to auxin responses in the pull down assays. AtAPP1 promoter-GFP fusions localized AtAPP1 to Roots and Transition zone at elevated levels in addition to hypocotyls, and cotyledons in 5d old Arabidopsis seedlings. AtAPP1 is also expressed in most of the mature tissues including leaves, flowers and siliques. Contrasting AtAPP1 mutant alleles had opposite phenotypes. The knock outs are dwarfs whereas overexpressors are larger. These are consistent with its cell types with elongated cells in the overexpressors as opposed to smaller cells in the knock outs in the calcaflor cell wall staining in 5d old seedlings. The columella differentiation of root tip, in the lugol staining are also contrasting in these mutants, the over-expressors stained bright whereas the knock outs are deficient in this differentiation, this developmental defect resulted in agravitropic response. In addition these knock outs are also dark and blue light response deficient. Presence of the truncated AtAPP1 transcript due to aberrant splicing in an intron insertion, resulted in increased Tyr-AP activity which were hyper-responsive to blue light but disoriented in dark, suggesting AtAPP1 mediated auxin dependent distinct Dark and light response pathways.

Sheenaley K Legas, Srinivas N Makam, and Angus S Murphy

Sheena Legas









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Role of Arabidopsis Aminopeptidase P ( At APP1) in Auxin and wounding Responses
Nanbing “Jade” Li
University of Texas Pan-American
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

AtAPP1 is responsive to both Auxin and Wounding. Wounding causes localized auxin synthesis. These responses mediated through AtAPP1 may involve diverse interactors and signaling cascades. The IAA7 mediated auxin response is a well established mechanism of ubiquitin mediated protein turn over which triggers downstream gene expression, those specifically having the auxin responsive factors (ARF) TGTCTC elements. AtAPP1 has two copies of the element. Pichia synthesized active AtAPP1 interacts with IAA7 and the Diproline mutation in the conserved Domain II decreased its interaction in the pull down assay. This interaction was auxin dependent and ceased at auxin concentration greater than 500nM in 5d old Arabidopsis seedlings indicating different interacting partners/substrates at elevated auxin concentrations. This coupled involvement of AtAPP1 suggests a feedback loop in auxin responses. AtAPP1 interacting partners, though overlapping seem different in auxin dependent wounding responses and auxin responses alone.

Nanbing Li, Srinivas N Makam, and Angus S Murphy

Jade Li




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Multi-element laser ablation analysis of yeast with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
Violet Yeager
University of Texas Pan-American
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

Many diseases are known to be caused by genetic mutations. Mutations may also have adaptation effects on organisms. Previous studies have shown that multi-element analysis of an organism allows mutation recognition. In this study, Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for multi-element analysis of yeast. The laser ablation technique was compared to the well-established digestion-nebulization ICP-MS technique.  Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) strain BY4741 and mutant BY4742 ZRC were evaluated to determine differences in elemental profile. Preliminary results suggest laser ablation is comparable to digestion in multi-element analysis. Although laser ablation enables micro-localized analysis of a sample, digestion was found to be more practical for complete analysis at high throughput.

Violet Yeager1, John Danku2, Brett Lahner2, David Salt2, Hosein, Fazeeda2.
2Purdue University , Department of Horticulture; 1University of Texas-Pan American
Violet Yeager




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Nanoparticle synthesis via Microemulsion for In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) Applications
Kelly Cross, Purdue University
Professor Michael Harris, Department of Chemical Engineering

Microemulsion is a convenient technique to prepare a thermodynamically stable, optically isotropic solution of two immiscible liquids (such as water and oil). A microemulsion consists of micro domains of one or both liquids stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactant. In this research, a reliable process for the preparation of micelle structures encapsulating an aqueous KMnO 4 solution and for the preparation of core-shell structured silica nanoparticles from the prepared micelles is studied. A non ionic surfactant was utilized to suspend the aqueous KMnO 4 solution in the oily, organic continuous phase. Solvent ratios are manipulated to observe and assess the particle size distribution. Finally a thin porous silica layer is coated on the micelles via sol-gel process Ammonium hydroxide is used as a base catalyst in a TEOS saturated micelle solution to construct the thin layer coating. Characterization of the micelle and silica core-shell structured micro particles is performed through TEM, and dynamic light scattering to investigate the morphology and particle size distribution, respectively.

Co-mentors: Ervina Widjaja (Graduate student) and Dr. Anjushri Sreedhar Kurup (Post-doc).

Kelly Cross




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Dietary influence on behavioral responses to stressors in rats
Ashley Curry, Grambling State University
Professor Kimberly Kinzig, Department of Psychological Sciences

Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in the United States and throughout the world. One hormone that is elevated in obese individuals is leptin, which is released from white adipose tissue in direct proportion to fat mass. It influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis via action at the hypothalamus through inhibition of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) release. Given the increasing prevalence childhood obesity and the link between leptin and the HPA axis, the primary aim of this study was to determine if rats raised on high fat diet from the post-weanling period through adulthood would respond differently to physiological and psychological stressors than rats that consumed a healthy, low-fat diet during childhood and adolescence, not beginning to consume a high fat diet until adulthood. Young male rats, (50-55g) were placed on high fat (YHF), moderate fat (YMF) or chow (YCH) diets. A second group of adult male rats (295-310 g) were raised on chow until adulthood and then placed on either HF (AHF), MF (AMF), or chow (ACH) diet. After acclimation to the diet, rats were trained to consume liquid Ensure. During testing, rats were exposed to restraint stress for 30 minutes, and then allowed access to Ensure. YCH rats consumed significantly more Ensure after restraint than with no restraint, demonstrating stress-induced increase in consumption of a palatable food. Rats on HF or MF did not increase intake after restraint, suggesting that maintenance HF diets attenuates stress-induced consumption of palatable foods.

Ashley Curry 1, 2 , Sara L. Hargrave 2 , Erin E. Tao 2 , and Kimberly P. Kinzig 2
Department of Biological Sciences, Grambling State University , Grambling, LA 1
Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University , West Lafayette , IN 2
Ashley Curry




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Synthesis of motor pRNA for in vitro assembly of infectious virion of bacteriophage f29
Alexander DiMauro, University of Illinois , Urbana-Champaign
Professor Peixuan Guo, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology

The promise of using small RNA for various therapeutic applications can be realized with the development of a safe and efficient delivery system. Bacteriophage f29 encodes a small RNA called packaging RNA (pRNA). It acts as a vital component to drive a DNA-packaging motor, and is capable of forming dimers, trimers, and hexamers, making it easy to manipulate to target specific cells and work as a delivery vehicle. In order to achieve this result, an understanding of the synthesis and packaging mechanisms of the f29 motor are necessary, along with proper laboratory techniques for maximum efficiency. This work involves the finding of optimal conditions for the synthesis of pRNA starting from a DNA template and PCR primers. The optimal concentration of magnesium and the number of PCR cycles were determined for maximum product with the most purity. Then, RNA transcripts were made using T7 RNA polymerase, purified, and used to assemble bacteriophage f29 virion. The virion were assembled and plated on LB Agar plates, and the activity was measured to determine DNA-packaging efficiency of wild type pRNA and various mutations of the CCA bulge that is part of the structure of the pRNA. Loss of activity showed that this simple three-nucleotide bulge was essential for proper virion activity.

Alex DiMauro




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Relationship between myosin heavy chain gene expression and protein abundance in porcine muscle
Lizanel Feliciano-Sanchez, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez
Professor David Gerrard, Department of Animal Sciences

Porcine skeletal muscles contain four types of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms (Type I, IIA, IIX and IIB). The composition of different isoforms determines muscle contractility and postmortem metabolism. Yet, the relationship between MyHC gene expression and protein abundance in porcine muscles is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between MyHC gene expression and protein abundance in porcine muscles. Cutaneous truncii (CT), longissimus dorsi (LD), masseter (MAS), diaphragm (DIA), red (RST) and white (WST) semitendinosus porcine muscle samples were taken immediately post-exanguination. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen, stored at -80°C and pulverized in liquid nitrogen before homogenization. MyHCs were separated using 10% SDS-PAGE and the intensity of the bands was quantified (KODAK D1 software program). Red (RST, MAS, DIA) muscles differed (P < 0.05) from white ( WST , CT LD) muscles in the composition of various MyHC isoforms. Red muscles had greater (P < 0.05) type I MyHC content, whereas white muscles contained greater relative type II MyHC. A strong correlation (R 2 = 0.76) between type IIB MyHC gene expression and the relative protein abundance in porcine muscles was observed. Similarly, type I MyHC gene expression was strongly correlated (R 2 = 0.78) with the relative type I protein in muscles. In contrast, type IIX and IIA MyHC gene expressions were weakly correlated (R 2 = 0.022 and 0.0006, respectively) with the corresponding protein abundance in the different muscles. These data confirm that MyHC gene expression in porcine skeletal muscle reflects corresponding MyHC content.

Sunny Park-Co-Mentor

Lizanel Feliciano




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Interacting Partners for Putative Arabidopsis thaliana Cytochrome P450 Reductase III
Isaura Gallegos , Eastern Washington University
Janani Varadarajan and Ronald Coolbaugh, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology

Cytochrome P450 reductases are essential for the function of another family of enzymes called cytochrome P450's. Cytochrome P450 reductases interact and transfer electrons to P450 enzymes to make them catalytically active. There are two known Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 reductases, ATR1 and ATR2. Analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed a third putative ATR, ATR3, which has been partially characterized. This project tested the interaction between ATR3 and three P450 enzymes, CYP701A3, CYP76C2, and CYP72A7 using the SRS yeast two-hybrid assay. ATR3 was cloned into the “bait” vector, the candidate protein partners were each cloned into the “prey” vectors individually. Yeast cells were transformed with the “bait” and the “prey” constructs. Interaction between the “bait” and “prey” was tested by checking for growth at 37°C in glucose or galactose medium. None of the three proteins tested displayed growth at 37°C.

Isaura Gallegos




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Cloning of Centromeric-Specific Histones (CENH3s) in Soybean
(Glycine max.)

Jamie Garcia, Sante Fe Community College
Professor Scott Jackson, Department of Agronomy

Centromeres are a key component of chromosomes in almost all eukaryotic species. They serve as site for kinetochore formation and sister chromatid cohesion during cell division. The functional centromeres have been associated with two key components: satellite repeats and the centromeric retrotransposons (CRRs). Several proteins have also been found associated with the centromeres; in fact, a centromeric-specific histone H3 variant (CENH3) has been found conserved across species. The purpose of this project is to clone the CENH3s in soybean ( Glycine max .) for use in subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChiP) experiments. Degenerate primer approach using RT-PCR will be used to clone the CENH3s from soybean. These degenerate primers will be designed from the consensus CENH3 sequence from Arabidopsis , Oryza sativa and Zea mays . Cloning the CENH3s will enable us to develop soybean anti-CENH3 antibody, which can be further used to label the centromeres in chromosome preparations and can also be used in ChiP experiments to clone the centromeric sequences containing CENH3. The long-term goal of the study is to examine how the CENH3s of soybean ( Glycine max .) might have co-evolved.

Jamie Garcia, Santa Fe Community College
Navdeep Gill, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University
Scott A. Jackson, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University
Jamie Garcia




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The Interaction of Androgen and 1, 25(OH)2 vitamin D3 in the Prostate Epithelial Cells
Alisha Gaulden, Southern University A&M College
Professor James Fleet, Department of Foods and Nutrition

Prostate cancer is the 3 rd leading killer among United States men. Androgen is important for the development and function of the normal prostate gland but also stimulates the growth of prostate cancer cells. The biological functions of androgen are mediated through binding to the androgen receptor (AR) and androgen deprivation therapy remains the primary of treatment for men with prostate cancer. Recent studies suggest that lifestyle and dietary factors like vitamin D can protect men from prostate cancer. Vitamin D is metabolically activated to form the hormone 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 D). In addition to its classical role in the control of calcium homeostatsis, 1,25 D can regulate the growth of cells, promote cell differentiation, and stimulate apoptosis through activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Based on their known functions in the prostate, we propose that androgens are antagonistic to 1,25 D in the prostate epithelial cell (PEC). In the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 1 nM) reduced 1,25 D-mediated CYP24 mRNA induction (100 nM, 8 h) by 50%. Also, treatment with the AR antagonist bicalamide (dose) increased 1,25 D action in DHT treated cells suggesting the effect of DHT depends upon activation of AR. We will next examine if DHT impairs action of 1,25 D in normal PEC. Finally, we will use reporter gene assays to confirm that DHT is directly inhibiting 1,25 D-mediated gene transcription. Our data suggest that androgens decrease the protective effect of 1,25 D on the prostate.

Alisha Gaulden @ , Yingben Xue*, James C. Fleet*, @ Dept of Biology, Southern University A&M College , *Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University

Alisha Gaulden




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Maintenance Management Strategies to Increase Manufacturing Competitiveness
Janson Graves, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
Professor Douglas McWilliams, Department of Industrial Technology

In today's global economy, manufacturers depend greatly on the principles and practices of lean manufacturing to reduce production cost and to improve their competitiveness in the market. The upkeep of capital resources is critical to sustaining that competitiveness. In this study, we explore various maintenance management strategies for a typical manufacturing facility.

James T. Luxhoj, Rutgers University , Piscataway, New Jersey
Jens O. Riis, Aalborg University, Denmark
Uffe Thorsteinsson, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Matthew P. Stephens, Purdue University
Janson Graves




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The Role of Cdk5 in Alzheimer's Disease
Mari Heghinian, Purdue University
Professor Kavita Shah, Department of Chemistry

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a vital role in central nervous system development, as well as newly discovered roles in myogenesis, pancreatic insulin secretion, and possibly spermatogenesis. Recent findings have suggested that deregulation of this kinase may even be involved in the onset of neurodegenerative disease, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has also been suggested that the phosphorylation of substrates by Cdk 5 may be involved in the increase or decrease in oxidative stress, leading to symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Through the development of a mitochondria isolation technique from organ tissue and the utilization of the chemical genetic method, novel substrates can be identified. Further explorations of pathways of AD-related neurodegeneration have also suggested the possible downstream involvement of proliferative markers. The relation of Cdk5 to proliferative markers and cancerous cells, has inspired the utilization of chemical genetic methods in order to identify the substrates of Cdk5 in these cell lines, as well as elucidate the possible roles of Cdk5 in cancer. Development of an efficient fractionation method will allow simplification of substrate identification, aiding in the comparison of normal cells and cancerous cells.

Mari Heghinian




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The Characteristics of Self-Employment in Indiana
Quintrell Hollis, Alabama A&M University
Professor Maria Marshall, Department of Agricultural Economics

Over time, self-employment has become increasingly popular as an economic development strategy and has received considerable attention in the economic development literature. Despite the increase in attention self-employment has received, relatively little information is known regarding the characteristics of the self-employed in Indiana . This project is concerned with determining the socio-economic demographic characteristics, such as age, educational level, income, etc., of the self-employed in Indiana . The data used in this project was obtained from the 2003 Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS), which utilizes The American Community Survey (ACS) 2003. From the PUMS data set, the 3,461 respondents reporting self-employment income for the state of Indiana were selected for this analysis. Several characteristics of the self-employed in Indiana are described in detail. The impacts of several demographic characteristics on self-employment were also tested using logistic regression. Preliminary results indicate that several of the socio-economic demographic variables do indeed have a significant impact on self-employment.

Co-mentor: Whitney O. Peake, Graduate Student, Department of Agricultural Economics

Quintrell Hollis




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Lck Expression in Breast Cancer Cells
Kristin Ivy, Grambling State University
Professor Marietta Harrison, Department of Medicinal Chemistry/Molecular Pharmacology

Lck is a member of the Src-family of protein tyrosine kinases. It is expressed in the plasma membrane of T lymphocytes and is required for their activation. Although Lck is expressed primarily in lymphocytes, it has been reported in a variety of epithelial carcinomas including colon, lung and mammary. Higher levels of Lck expression were reported in human tumor cell lines derived from metastatic tumor sites and it is therefore possible that Lck may be involved in the progression of non-lymphoid human tumors. In order to test the expression of Lck and its involvement in either the development or spread of breast cancer, transformed and normal breast epithelial cell lines were analyzed for Lck protein levels using two different techniques. Antibodies to Lck were utilized in both immunoblot and immunostaining analyses. Although immunoblot analysis did not detect the presence of Lck in any of the cell lines tested, immunostaining revealed that Lck was present in MDA-MB 231 cells and localized in the nucleus. The nuclear localization of Lck was best seen when a low dilution of the Lck antibody was used. Studies to repeat this observation in the MDA-MB 231 cells as well as in normal and other transformed epithelial cells are ongoing. Additional studies are needed to conclude that Lck is indeed present in the nucleus of breast cancer cells.

Co-mentor: Mara Luz Vázquez

 

Kristin Ivy


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CO2 Sensing for Indoor Air Quality Detection Using Sensor Networksa
John Kimani, Miami University , Ohio
Professor Yung-Hsiang Lu, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Indoor air quality has been shown to affect the work performance and health of people occupying indoor spaces. The cost of operating heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems to control air quality is high. Current systems do not use advanced air monitoring controls such as CO 2 sensors. We have created a modern monitoring and control system, which can dynamically change HVAC systems based upon minute to minute variations of activities in an indoor space. In this project, we attached CO­ 2 and temperature sensors to self configuring wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. This allows for near instant data collection and monitoring of the air quality in indoor spaces. The WSN nodes transmit air quality data to a base station; the base station analyzes the data and controls specific HVAC actions based upon analysis. This system yields several benefits. It provides centralized control of HVAC systems. It allows for system control parameters to be updated continuously. Our design works in both single and multi-zone HVAC systems. The most important benefit is that the system does not need to warm or cool large amounts of fresh air when the building is not occupied. This lowers the cost of operating HVAC systems. We believe that in coming years the price of this technology will fall to the point that it is both fiscally and environmentally responsible to use it for HVAC control.

John Kimani, Justin Woo, Douglas Herbert, Professor Yung-Hsiang Lu
1 Electrical and Computer Engineering, Miami University , OH
2 Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University , IN
John Kimani




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Writing as a component of early literacy competence: Results from an intervention in Head Start classrooms
Keyona Lewis, North Carolina A&T State University
Professor Karen Diamond, Douglas Powell, Department of Child Development and Family Studies

Emergent literacy can be identified as the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are developmental antecedents to reading and writing. Writing is one component of emergent literacy in which children construct meaning. Emergent writing is a process of writing from pre-conventional writing (e.g., scribbles) to conventional writing (e.g., actual letters). As part of an individual interview of standardized early literacy measures, children provided a writing sample. The current study employs a rigorous coding system which provides a descriptive analysis of writing for four-year-old children (N = 401). It also identifies the impact of environmental supports on emergent writing. Finally, this study discusses the link between emergent writing and letter knowledge.

Co-mentor: Hope Gerde

Keyona Lewis




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Waveform-Engineered Convection-Enhanced Drug Delivery with Improved Efficacy
Gabriel Lopez-Diaz, University of South Florida
Professor Babak Ziaie, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Many studies have found that the majority of potential neurotherapeutics are limited in use by the blood-brain barrier's ability to filter out high molecular weight and non-lipid soluble molecules. In response, researchers have discovered that convection-enhanced drug delivery provides targeted and improved distribution over slow rate infusion in brain tissue. However, these same studies also note that backflow is detected at the needle's point of insertion at flow rates greater than 60µl/hr. Based on these findings we are testing the use of square wave patterned convection infusion cycles in an effort to improve the distribution and eliminate the backflow of solution at higher flow rates. Through the use of a programmable syringe pump, a water soluble dye is injected into Agarose gel brain phantoms (0.4% w/v) in intermittent cycles of infusion and rest for rates ranging from 10µl/hr to 600µl/hr.

Gabriel Lopez 1 , Nithin Raghunathan 2 , Dr. Babak Ziaie 2
University of South Florida 1
Purdue University 2
Gabe Lopez




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The Influence of Sanitation, Age, and Distance on Red Flour Beetle Movement in Reaction to Pheromone Traps
Keith Marshall , Florida A&M University
Professor Linda Mason, Department of Entomology

Red flour beetles (RFB)( Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)) can be a nuisance in both homes and food manufacturing facilities. RFB primarily attack grain products, such as flour and cereals. Both adults and larvae feed on grain and broken kernels. Pheromone traps are often placed out to monitor RFB populations. The efficacy of a monitoring program relies on the movement of beetles to traps which may be influenced by sanitation level within the facility or beetle age. In this study we examined the movement of the RFB as influenced by age (4 groups between1 and 21 days old), sanitation (high med and low), and trap distance (about 0.9, 1.5 and 3 m). We found that the closer the pheromone trap is to the actual infestation the more beetles will move to the traps. Secondly, the cleaner the area the more beetles move towards the trap. Lastly, we found that as beetles increase with age (up to 21 +days) the more likely they are to be caught. The results of this indicate that monitoring of beetle populations will be more effective when the traps are placed in a clean facility, close to the suspected infestation, and early in the infestations to catch individuals during the first few weeks of adulthood.

WanTien Tsai, Co-Mentor

Keith Marshall




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Ethnic Fluidity in colonial New Mexico
Felicia Moralez, Purdue University
Professor Charles Cutter, Department of History

The purpose of this project was to discover how the racial identity of New Mexican colonists shifted from mestizos, mulattos, Indians, and Afro-hispanos to “español” between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. The second wave of colonists who settled New Mexico in the 1690s consisted of 30 racially mixed families and 17 “español” families. Primary published and secondary sources, which up to this point have included Juan Páez Hurtado's 1694 Zacatecas recruitment list as well as books by prominent New Mexican historians John Kessell and Angélico Chávez, have shown that racial identity in colonial New Mexico was a very complicated issue. These sources show that racial identity was affected by who in the family represented the household's ethnicity; how marriage, remarriage, and children born out of wedlock influenced how racial identity was inherited; whose racial identity was ignored; and how the documents are unclear about certain identities. While some New Mexicans such as Pedro Bautista Pino declared the population to be either Indian or español, the picture is much cloudier. Pino's ethnic division was possibly an effort by colonists to rise above their humble origins as dictated by New Spain 's racial hierarchy. Also, emphasizing an “español” identity might have allowed them to see themselves as the fullest representation of Hispanic civilization on New Mexico 's frontier.

Felicia Moralez




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Laser Capture Microdissection and Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Electrophoresis
Patricia Odom, Jackson State University
Professor Sulma Mohamed, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology

In 2004, The American Cancer Society reported approximately 31,680 new cases of pancreatic cancer, of which 98% would end in death. Current testing for pancreatic cancer such as computed tomography, serum markers, and endoscopic ultrasonography, lack sensitivity for early detection . In the earliest stages of pancreatic cancer, autoantibodies to tumor antigens are present. The Mohammed lab explores the possibilities of proteins as biomarkers in early detection of cancers. My project used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to dissect specific normal and tumor pancreas cells that would be used for protein analysis. The goal of my project was to determine how many LCM caps must be collected to retrieve 250µg of protein for two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis (2DPAGE). Frozen normal and tumor tissue samples were imbedded in OCT, sectioned at 7µm thickness onto slides using a cryostat, and stored at -80ºC until they were to be used. Each slide was fixed with 75% ethanol and stained with hematoxlyin. Once stained, the slide was placed in the LCM for microdissection of the specific cells onto the LCM caps. Each cap was immediately lysed in a buffer specific for two-dimensional protein analysis and sonicated for maximum cell lysis. Thirty caps of tumor tissue were collected and were all lysed in the same microfuge tube, as they all came from one tissue sample and could be pooled together. An additional sample of 10 caps from different tumor tissue sample was also collected and lysed using new lysis buffer. Amido black protein determination was performed on each sample and the samples were run on a one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel for accuracy. Based on the results of the protein determination, approximately 250 LCM caps would have to be collected before 2DPAGE analysis can be carried out.

No Photo Available




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The Effects of Urbanization on Regional Climate: Chicago, IL and Northern Indiana
Tosha Richardson , Virginia Commonwealth University
Professor Devdutta Niyogi, Departments of Agronomy and Earth and Atmospheric Science
Indiana State Climate Office

With increasing population, land use/land cover change through urbanization is rapidly occurring globally including the US and the Midwest . Urbanization can affect the distribution of surface radiative energy, regional water cycle, and the local circulations due to differential heating of the land surface. This study seeks to understand the impact of urbanization on the regional weather and climate patterns in the Midwest . Study builds on an ongoing analysis which showed that the Indianapolis urban area affects the morphology of the regional thunderstorms, and thus impact the rainfall in the neighboring regions. We expanded this assessment to regions around Chicago , IL and rural northern IN ( La Porte ). The effects of urbanization on temperature, precipitation, and specific thunderstorm events are analyzed for a period from 2000 to 2004. Using SAS statistical software, a t-test was performed on the daily average temperatures and daily precipitation. Results suggest that the regional effects of urbanization are detectable in some of the temperature data but also in the precipitation and thunderstorm structure. A case study of a thunderstorm event on May 24, 2004 using radar analysis was also conducted using data from the NOAA Storm Prediction Center . The storm shows change in its morphology (outermost parts dissipate while the central part intensifies through the urban region). Our research has also concluded that full impact of urbanization on regional climate can not be observed only through temperature changes (heat island) alone, but needs to consider the dynamical feedback, particularly on the humidity and precipitation changes, to assess the broader effects.

Tosha Richardson 1 , Dev Niyogi 2 , Brian Wolfe 2 , Juli Bell 2
Virginia Commonwealth University 1 ; Indiana State Climate Office, Purdue University 2

Tosha Richardson



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Metabolite Profiling for Early Disease Detection
Otoniel Rivera-Torres, Universidad del Este, Puerto Rico
Professor Daniel Raftery, Department of Chemistry

Early detection of diseases is crucial for its ultimate control and prevention, it can give the opportunity for the adequate therapy treatment. In many cases diseases like cancer can not be diagnosed and treated until cancer cells have already invaded surrounding tissues and metastasized through the body.

Testing has improved, however they still not reach the sensitivity and specificity needed for reliably early stage detection.

Hypothetically exploring detectable changes in multiple metabolites can lead to the indication of the early onset of diseases. The development of new applications of NMR methods that deliver higher sensitivity and throughput for a range of applications can be a successful tool for this application. Also, biomarkers are important tools. They serve as disease detectors, hallmarks for physiology of the cell, monitors. Biomarkers can be applied with the use of gene mutations, alterations, transcriptions and translations. We will focus on the identification of the present matabolomics on the early diseases stages.

Otto Rivera




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Pathogenicity analysis of Phytophthora citricola on different hosts
Hector Rodriguez-Aguilar, University of Puerto Rico
Professor Janna Beckerman, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology

Phytophthora citricola is a plant pathogenic fungus that affects many plants worldwide. This pathogen is reported to cause root rot, stem canker, shoot blight, crown rot, and collar rot. The infection presents itself as necrotic plant tissue, which can eventually lead to plant death. Young cultures of P. citricola were used to inoculate periwinkle, snapdragon, azalea, hibiscus, tomato, and lilac. Of the plants tested, periwinkle, azalea, tomato and lilac developed dead and collapsed cells in the detached petiole assay. Periwinkle, hibiscus, tomato and lilac exhibited a sunken necrotic canker upon wound inoculation. On the detached leaf trials, periwinkle, hibiscus, tomato, azalea and lilac developed leaf spot when the inoculum was placed on a wound from a pushpin (Rhododendron also showed leaf spot in this test, but was not included in the other tests). Snapdragon was the only plant previously reported as susceptible that did not show symptoms in any of the trials, and none of the plants expressed symptoms when inoculated on unwounded stem or leaf tissue. P. citricola was able to infect most of the plants used in this study when there was some sort of wound or opening present, and it was incapable of infecting the plant when a wound was not available for the pathogen.

H. Rodríguez-Aguilar ­­1 Ryan Deford 2 , Janna Beckerman 3
1 Department of Horticulture, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez , PR
2 Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
3 Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN
Hector Rodriguez




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Effects of Human Disturbance on Great Blue Heron Nesting Success
Anthea Saez, Purdue University , Calumet
Professor Maria Sepulveda, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

It is well known that human disturbance close to bird colonies can lead to abandonment and increased mortalities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of human disturbance on the nesting success of a Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) colony in Indiana . We monitored number of nests that produced hatchlings during the reproductive seasons (April – July) before (2005) and during (2006) construction of a levee. Construction took place at less than 50 m from the edge of the colony, began before birds arrived to the colony, and continued throughout the monitoring period. We found a significant decline in the average number of chicks that hatched per nest, decreasing from 2.7 to 2.2 (t = 2.07, P < 0.02). We conclude that human disturbance due to construction significantly affected nesting success in this species at this location.

Co-mentors: Stephanie Baker (MS student in charge of the heron project); Jiri Adamec (faculty from Bindley Bioscience Center-he will be doing fatty acid analyses at his lab); Kimberly Ralston-Hooper, and Brian Sanchez.

 

Anthea Saez




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The Importance of Mist1 to Mammary Epithelial Development and its Role in Breast Cancer
Venessa Smith, Voorhees College
Professor Stephen Konieczny, Department of Biological Sciences

Recently, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, Mist1, has been identified which may be able to regulate the growth of mammary epithelial cells. Mist 1 is shown to be present in normal (non-malignant) cell lines, but is absent from cancerous cell lines. Mist1 is mainly expressed during terminal differentiation (lactation). This led us to study MCF10A and SCP2 mammary epithelial cell lines, which can be induced to terminally differentiate by addition of matrigel and prolactin. We studied the effect of Mist1 expression on cell differentiation and cell proliferation. This study was aimed at answering:

1) Is there Mist1 expression in MCF10A and SCP2 cells?

2) What media component induces Mist1 expression in SCP2 cells?

3) What would happen if we blocked Mist1 function in mouse SCP2 cells?

These cells were grown in 3D cultures for over a 10 day period in different media compositions. Hematoxylin and Eosin(H&E) stains, westerns, RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining were done, to study Mist1 expression as well as other differentiation and proliferation markers.

Our preliminary data shows that Mist1 is expressed in MCF10A and SCP2 cells after matrigel treatments. Prolactin alone does not induce Mist1.

We have also studied the histological difference in mammary glands at lactation day1 between Mist1-kras, Mist knock out and wild-type mice using H&E and immunohistochemical stainings.

Venessa Smith, Carina Johansson and Stephen F. Konieczny
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue Cancer Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 and the Department of Biological Sciences, Voorhees College, Denmark, SC 29042.

 

Venessa Smith




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Identification and Analysis of Adaptive Mutations in Persistently Replicating Flavivirus Replicon RNA
Elvin Soto-Hernandez, University of Puerto Rico in Aguadillo
Professor Richard Kuhn, Department of Biological Sciences

Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) is an enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus, belonging to the Flaviviridae family. The genome encodes for three structural proteins that form the virus particle, and seven non-structural proteins, that are involved in genome replication. This is a very diverse family causing a wide range of diseases worldwide from mild fever and encephalitis, to hemorrhagic fever and even death. The purpose of this project was the identification and analysis of adaptive mutations in persistently replicating YFV replicons. The discovery of these mutations will aid in the development of innovative anti-viral therapies and vaccine strains. Transcripts of YFV replicon containing neomycin gene (YF-IRES-Neo) were introduced in BHK cells and cells containing persistently replicating replicon were selected using antibiotic selection. These cells were termed as BHK-REP cells. After serial passage of the BHK-REP cells, the replicon RNA was extracted, RT-PCR performed and resulting cDNA sequenced. Comparing sequences obtained for the RT-PCR products with the original YF-IRES-Neo plasmid, mutations in the replicon were identified. Six amino acid changes were found and mapped to non-structural proteins NS3, NS4B and NS5. These changes might be adaptive mutations occurring in the YFV replicon for persistent replication in BHK-REP cells. Three mutations were identified in the NS4B protein and this protein has been previously shown to be involved in cellular interferon response against virus infection. Studies on the effect of these mutations on virus replication and infectivity are in progress.

Elvin Soto Hernandez 1 , Chinmay Patkar 2 , Richard Kuhn 2
University of Puerto Rico in Aguadilla 1
Purdue University 2

 

Elvin Soto




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Trends Within The Fresh Produce Supply Chain
Courtney Stewart, Prairie View A&M University
Professor Jennifer Dennis, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

The supply chain can be defined as a coordinated system of organizations, people, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to consumer. The produce or fruit and vegetable industry accounts for approximately one-third of U.S. crop cash receipts. Fruit and vegetable producers are predominately small and are highly fragmented which leads to several problems within the industry's supply chain such as packing uniformity and regulation, distribution issues, fragmentation, perishability, and a need for market recognition by consumers. Industry trends have shown a movement towards consolidation of firms and a decrease in the number of intermediaries present from grower to retailer. This project examines the literature, statistics from surveys conducted by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, and several M.S. and Ph.D. theses dealing with supply chain issues within the produce industry.

Courtney Stewart, Prairie View A&M University College of Agriculture and Human Sciences
Dr. Jennifer Dennis, Purdue University Department of Agricultural Economics
Christa Hofmann, Purdue University Department of Agricultural Economics

Courtney Stewart




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Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) Characterization of Archaeal Community in the Human Intestine
Emiko Taki , Kansas State University
Professor Cindy Nakatsu, Department of Agronomy

The microbial ecosystem in the human intestine is essential for maintaining human health. Until now, Bacteria have largely been the focus of human intestinal research and there have been relatively few studies relating to Archaea. The objectives of this study were to examine the presence of intestinal Archaea in multiple human subjects, to identify those that were found and to determine the influence of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) obtained from soy on this community. Fecal samples were collected from four human subjects, total community genomic DNA was isolated and the Archaeal 16S rDNA was selectively amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to separate the PCR products to make the Archaeal community profile of each fecal sample. The nucleotide sequences of Archaeal phylotypes were determined. The presence of Archaea was not observed in every subject nor did it appear to be a function of soy intake. Nevertheless, more than one phylotype was found among different subjects. Future studies are needed to determine the role of Archaea in the human intestine and determine factors which affect their presence/absence in the human intestinal microbial ecosystem.

Emiko Taki 1, Merlin W. Ariefdjohan 2 , Joanne A. Lasrado 2,
Dennis A. Savaiano 2 , & Cindy H. Nakatsu 3
1 Dept. of Hotel Restaurant Institution Management & Dietetics, Kansas State University
2 Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, & 3 Dept. of Agronomy, Purdue University

 

Emiko Taki




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Effects of Alcohol Drinking During Adolescence on Adult Alcohol
Drinking Behavior in a Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism

Hugo Tejeda, University of Texas at El Paso
Professor Julia Chester, Department of Psychological Sciences

Background: Genetic factors are known to influence the risk for alcoholism. It is also well-established that alcohol exposure during adolescence significantly increases a person's risk for developing alcoholism compared to people that do not begin drinking alcohol until adulthood. The purpose of the following study was to assess how acquisition of voluntary alcohol drinking behavior during adolescence may alter alcohol consumption during adulthood in mice with a genetic propensity toward high alcohol drinking.

Methods: Male and female mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference [high alcohol preferring (HAP1) line] were allowed free-choice access to a 10% alcohol drinking solution and water (n=7 for males; n=10 for females) or only water (n=4 for males; n=7 for females) for 17 days throughout the late adolescent period, which began on post-natal day (PND) 39-42. Alcohol consumption during adulthood (PND 56) was recorded for 18 days.

Results: Alcohol drinking behavior during adulthood in both male and female mice that voluntarily consumed alcohol during adolescence did not differ from control females and males that began drinking alcohol in adulthood. There was a trend for female mice to consume more alcohol in g/kg and have higher alcohol preference scores than male mice.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that voluntary alcohol consumption during late adolescence does not increase alcohol consumption during adulthood in male and female HAP1 mice, although post hoc tests do reveal reduced alcohol intake in male HAP1 mice on certain days during adulthood.

Hugo A. Tejeda, Gustavo D. Barrenha, and Julia A. Chester
Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University , West Lafayette , IN , 47907

 

Hugo Tejeda




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Elements of Socialization to Race Related Police Contact
Yavette Vaden, San Diego State University
Professor David Rollock, Department of Psychological Sciences

Generally, negative attitudes towards the police may be important contributors to race-related stress among African Americans. However, given that most African Americans do not have unusual negative personal experiences with police, it is unclear how these attitudes develop. This study explored whether parental messages about police are associated with direct experiences, perceived neighborhood safety, as well as parent gender, or age . African American parents (26 women, 13 men), mostly from working class backgrounds, completed a brief questionnaire with items related to personal contact with police, feelings and attitudes toward police contact, the content of messages conveyed to children about police, and circumstances under which they are transmitted. Results indicated that while 73.5% of the participants perceived their neighborhood to be safe, and 71.8% had friends or acquaintances who were police officers, 89.2% believed that police generally treat people differently because of race/ethnicity. Fisher's Exact Test revealed that being stopped by the police or having relatives who are police officers increased the likelihood of warning children about the police. Having friends and family who are police officers increased the likelihood of encouraging speaking to police and considering their neighborhood unsafe decreased this likelihood. Surprisingly, those who had family members who are police officers were more likely to discuss how police treat different ethnic groups. Finally, older parents are more likely to discuss ethnic differences in police treatment as well as encourage their children to speak to police. Other results and their implications, as well as l imitations and recommendations for future research, are discussed.

Yavette Vaden**, David Rollock*, and Demietrice L. Moore*
Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University *
Department of Psychology, San Diego State University **

 

Yavette Vaden




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Synthesis of Polyrotaxane Materials for DNA Delivery
Maria “Norma” Villalon, Ventura Community College
Professor David Thompson, Department of Chemistry

The purpose of this project is to design synthetic transfection complexes for eukaryotic cells.

Cyclodextrins are cyclic polymers of 6, 7, or 8 glucose sugars joined together via 1-4 glycosidic linkages. Cyclodextrins have a hydrophobic cavity in the center and a hydrophilic exterior. During exposure to hydrophobic polymers such as PPG (polypropylene glycol) in aqueous media, the polymer threads through the cyclodextrin cavity forming a pseudo-polyrotaxane. Once both ends of the polymer are modified with bulky substituents to retain the threaded cyclic species, a polyrotaxane is formed.

polyrotaxane 

We seek to develop a targeting degradable cationic polyrotaxane for the complexation and delivery of pDNA into eukaryotic cells. Thus far, cationic cyclodextrins have been synthesized, as well as modified polymers. Formation of the pseudo-polyrotaxanes and capping of the material is to follow. After the synthesis of the polyrotaxanes, we will be able to attempt pDNA complexation, and transfection into eukaryotic cells.

Norma Villalon, Ventura Community College , California ; Scott Loethen and Professor David H. Thompson, Purdue University Department of Chemistry

Norma Villalon




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